The authors of this review examined the most appropriate features of exercise for increasing bone density in osteoporotic patients. Two types emerged: (1) weight-bearing aerobic exercises, i.e., walking, stair climbing, jogging, and Tai Chi. Walking alone did not appear to improve bone mass; however, it is able to limit its progressive loss. To be effective these exercises must reach the mechanical intensity useful to reach specific ground reaction forces. (2) Strength and resistance exercises: these are carried out with loading (lifting weights). To be effective a joint reaction force superior to common daily activity must be reached. Strength exercises are extremely site-specific, able to increase muscle mass and BMD only in the stimulated body regions. Other suggested protocols are multicomponent exercises and whole-body vibration (WBV). Multicomponent exercises consist of a combination of different methods such as aerobics, strengthening, progressive resistance, balancing, and dancing. Training with WBV requires specialised devices, and seems to provide good results, especially in improving balance and reducing the risk of falling; in this, WBV appears more efficient than simply walking.
Biomed Res Int. Dec 23;2018